Atlas Site Bibliography
Outgassing rate of aluminum is typically in the order of 10-12 to 10-14 Torr l/Sec cm²
Ishimaru, H.; "Developments and Applications for All-Aluminum Alloys Vacuum Systems", MRS Bulletin, Vol XV, No. 7 July 1990, pp 24.
Halama, H. J.; Herrera, J.C.; "Thermal desorption of gases from aluminum alloy Al 6061, their rates and activation energies", Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology, Vol. 13, No. 1, Jan./Feb. 1976, pp 466.
Chen, June-Rong; Lee, Chih-Hao; Chen, Jyh-Cheng; Hsieh, Huan-Lurn; and Liu, Yuen-Chung; "Outgassing behavior of A6063-EX aluminum alloy and SUS 304 stainless steel" Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A Vol. 5, No. 2, Mar/Apr 1987, pp 263.
Hajime Ishimaru , "Ultimate Pressure of the Order of 10 -13 Torr in an Aluminum Alloy Vacuum Chamber", Journal of Vacuum Science Technology A 7(3), 2439-2442 1989
Moraw, G., "The influence of ionization gauges on gas flow measurements, "Vacuum, 24, 1974, pp 128.
Young, J.R., "Outgassing Characteristics of Stainless Steel and Aluminum with Different Surface Treatments," Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology, Volume 6, Number 3, 1969 pp 400.
Iguchi, H.; Momose, T.; Ishimaru, H; "C12 gas corrosion and outgassing of various surface treated aluminum alloys", Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A, Vol. 11, No. 4, Jul/Aug 1993 pp 1708.
A description of the excellent vacuum and physical of aluminum
Contributing author James Garner, Handbook of Vacuum Technology, Modern Methods and Techniques Section 4.5.6 Aluminum Based Vacuum Systems SMC Technology No publisher info avaiable: Aluminum Based Vacuum Systems. Handbook of Vacuum Technology. ed. Hoffman, Thomas and Singh. Academic Press, Harcourt Brace and Company, (1997). )
Ota, K Kanazawa, M. Kobayahi, & H. Ishimaru; "Outgassing from Aluminum Surface Layer Induced by Synchrotron Radiation" American Vacuum Society (1996).
T. Momose, K. Asano, N. Ohta, Y. Kanda. and H. Ishimaru. "Auger Electron Spectroscopy Characterization of Aluminum Alloy Exposed to Synchrotron Radiation", American Vacuum Society (1994).
C.L. Foerster and C. Lanni BNL, J.R. Noonan and Rosenberg. "Photon Stimulated Desorption Measurement of an Extruded Aluminum Beam Chamber for the Advanced Photon Source", American Vacuum Society (1996).
G.Y. Hsiung, J.R. Huang, D.J. Wang, J.G. Shyy, J.C Lee, R.J. Sheu, H.S. Tzeng, S.N. Hsu, S.Y. Perng, K.M. Hsiao, W.D. Wey, J.R. Chen, and Y.C. Liu. "Low Contamination Ultrahigh Vacuum System of the Synchrotron Radiation Research Center 1.3 GeV Electron Storage Ring", American Vacuum Society (1995).
Effective Environmentally Friendly UHV Cleaning for Aluminum
C.L. Foerster C. Lani and R. Lee BNL and G. Mitchell and W. Quade at Dow Chemical Cleaning Systems. "Tests of an Environmental and Personnel Safe Cleaning Process for Brookhaven National Laboratory and Storage Ring Components" JVST A15(3) May/June (1997)
R.A. Rosenberg, M.W. McDowell, and J.R. Noonan "X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy analysis of aluminum and copper cleaning procedures for the Advanced Photon Source" , JVST A12(4), Jul/Aug (1994).
Vacuum bake out substantial degreasing of aluminum starts at 80°C and is very high at 150°C
Mohri, M.; Maeda, S.; Odagiri, H.; Hashiba, M.; Yamishina T.; and Ishimaru, H.; "Surface study of Type 6063 aluminum alloys for vacuum chamber materials" Vacuum, V34, No. 6, 1984, pp 643.
R. Chen, K. Nanushima, H. Ishimaru; Thermal out Gassing of Aluminum Alloy Vacuum Chambers, Journal of Vacuum Science Technology A 3(6), 2188-2191 (1985).
Examination of aluminum and stainless surface treatments
F. Dylla, D. M. Manos and P. H. LaMarche, Correlation of Outgassing of Stainless Steel and Aluminum Journal of Vacuum Science Technology A 11(5), 2623-2636 (1993).
Hydrogen permeation through aluminum is approximately seven orders of magnitude lower than stainless steel
Norton, F.J., "Gas Permeation through the Vacuum Envelope," Trans. 8th AVS Vac. Symposium, Pergamon Press, New York, 1962, pp 14.
Hydrogen diffuses through metals in its elemental form
Norton, Francis J., Gas Permeation through the Vacuum Envelope," Trans. 8th AVS Vac. Symposium., Pergamon Press, new York, 1962, pp 13.
Chemically active elemental hydrogen in metals is believed to react with carbon and oxygen and Hydrocarbons which produce a large variety of secondary background gases that pollute vacuum
Ishimaru, H.; "Developments and Applications for All-Aluminum Alloys Vacuum Systems", MRS Bulletin, Vol XV, No. 7 July 1990, pp 27.